The Black Arts Movement and Their Legacy

‘Soul of a Nation’ and ‘The place is Here’ have looked at the Black Arts Movements. They discuss contemporary politics but the context that these exhibitions were conceived in were very different to the time there displayed in. Issues around rights and equality are so current now, theses exhibitions were thought of discussing things of the past but now (considering Trump administration) they are very current.


‘Post’ doesn’t mean simply after, but states something in the conditions of colonisation have changed. They haven’t disappeared but have simply moved forward. The 1960’s had a lot of decolonisation and the context for this was the civil rights movement, sexual equality, rise of feminism which made it a very active period of time. This coincided with American Black Arts moment, however, this happened over a decade later in England.


dispersedia ‘across’+ speirein ‘scatter’ the dispersion or spread of any people from their original homeland

Many people came into England after the second world war as needed workers. The first group of artist from post colonies were interested in modernist movements. There was an idea that modernism was an international movement. There was an idea that abstract language was universal. So the early migrant artists came to the UK to join the modernist movement in England as abstract sculptures and painters but their reception was that they were alien – theses artists  (such as Frank Bowling) were disillusioned.

‘Who’s Afraid of Barney Newman’
Frank Bowling

1989 ‘Magicians de la terre’ and ‘the other story’ were two Exhibitions which were concerned with the lack of non-white and western practises at that time. They devided between 50 western artists and 50 from ‘non’ west.

Jean Fisher’s essay ‘the other story and the passing perfect’ discsusses the differeneces and simialirites between the two exibitions. She says the curation of the ‘Magicians de la terre’ directed the exhibition into two fragments; western modern artists and the non-western ‘traditional’ artists. The curation told a story of modernist art being contaminated when non-western artists were creating work – they weren’t seen as being authentically from the culture, which was being criticised by Fisher. The show featured western artists such as Jeff Wall and Claes Oldenburg / Coosje Van Bruggen, next to the traditions which separated the ‘other’ in art works such as Jangarh Singh Shya’s traditionalist Indian painting.

‘The Storyteller’
Jeff Wall
Jangarh Singh Shyam

Fisher argued that artists such as Ali Wei Wei wouldn’t be shown as wasn’t seen as purely traditional – he’s a modernist. Contemporary artists were being categorised negatively as not being ‘truelyl authentic’ to their country. But Fisher says the ‘other story’ was discussing modernist artists who weren’t from west and placing their experimentation alongside wester artists. He said in his book ‘The Other Story and the Past Imperfect’ that:

Contact between Europe and its ‘others’ produced transformations in both directions, leading to a plurality of modernities and modernisms, each with its local inflections… Cross-cultural encounters are perceived as central to the formation of modernism, not supplementary… both in the formal break with pictorial conventions and in the development of the ‘expressionist’ strand of modernism that began with ‘primitivism“- Jean Fisher ‘The Other Story and the Past Imperfect’, p. 2-3

If we want to have a global understanding of art history we have to look outside of western understanding. The west doesn’t automatically operate as the centrt against which everything else gets measured. There is so much depth to the resources which artists have used to create these movements.

An example of this is when Van Gogh literally copied Hiroshige’s ‘Sudden Shower Over Shin-Ohashi Bridge and Atake’ when creating his work ‘Bridge in the Rain’. His work later became vital to post impressionist specifically exploring the flattening of images. However, the influence from this moment was originated in Japanese art.  However, these movements are seen as ‘European’ so when artists outside of the west start playing with these themes their work and them as individuals/ artist have been condemned by critiques and the wider market.

‘Bridge in the Rain’ (after Hiroshige)
Vincent Van Gogh
‘Sudden Shower Over (Shin-Ohashi Bridge and Atake)’

Second Wave Black Arts Movements

In the 1980’s in England, the use of name ‘black’ was used to bring together diverse groups who wouldn’t usually unify but being brought against the white culture. They were being treated as ‘other’ or alienated. It was strategic but also dangerous as it emphasises difference. The significance of a difference was being brought into question politically as separating them.

We see the recent acceptance of non-wester artists working in contemporary mediums through these four Artists:

  1. Rasheed Araeen– Frist generation artist from Pakistan started making minimalist scuptural as she first moved to England. Through time work becomes more political and is active as an individual working as a curator, writer, editior, set up magazine.

    ‘Burning Ties’
    Rasheed Araeen
  2. Mona Hatoum From Lebanon performance piece. The doc martins as national from skin heads and polic were using docs as shoes so had important significace. They acted as a shadow or a lurking presense. They disturb her capacity to walk naturally so she cannot walk innosently and purely.
    Performance Still (Roadworks exhibition Brixton)
    Mona Hatoum

    Performance Still (Roadworks exhibition Brixton)
    Mona Hatoum
  3. Black Audio Film Collective John Akomfrah makde film, gernally known now as ‘film essay’ moving between documentary and also contemporary. During there work together they organised film screening through out London in order to produces exposure of topics which aren’t gernally discussed. Archival footage becomes a fragment of the time the film was made. So they used factual and poet work by looking at documentation along with voice overs and sound to changed the time and interpretation.

    ‘The Unfinished Conversation’
    John Akomfrah
  4. Sonia Boyce looks at the tension of generational difficulties as her parents were involved in chritistianity but her second generation are more associated with the Rastafarian religion, which starts to go against her parental ties. It deals with complexities of who and what one identifies with. Iconography – images are  a language of signs which carry a series of meanings outside of the painting itself. She looks at self portraiture and looks at how to present her self when the image she’s dealing with has socially negative connotations.

    ‘Missionary Position II’
    Sonia Boyce

Of the back of Boyce’s exploration of self through portraiture allows us to explore the different between ‘Identity Politics’ and the ‘Politics of identity’. Whilst the former implies that one knows who one is, the latter looks at when identity is thrown into question. They start to discuss: what am I? This topic of subjectivity is started to be discussed as a problem by boyce.

‘From Tarzan to Rambo- English Born ‘Native’ Considers her Relationship to the Constructed/Self Image and her Roots in Reconstruction’
Sonia Boyce

Identity might be what we are pre-given but Identification might be things through which we choose. If the identification Boyce has placed on her and reflected back to her is negative, how do you deal with this? Culture is placing images onto her which are hard to deal with such as expectations on the topics within the art felid which she ‘should’ be dealing with.



I started to look at the constraints of human decision which can sometimes prevent us from breaking through artists barriers which we from through rituals.

‘Untitled 1985’ by Donald Judd

Donald Judd starts to explore how we can create methods of breaking these habits of human nature by using mathematical algorithms or rule to change our making process- inviting an external dictatorship.  ‘Untitled 1985’ shows a series of objects made in different variations. His work is a reaction against individualism, where all decision making is down to the artist- such as Clifford Stills work. The work is traditionally completely under the artist control. Therefore the artist self is the core source of the making of an article. The artist is the creative one. Much of the control held by the artist was celebrated in the romantic period as an opportunity for self discovery, which was seen as a liberation.  In 1960’s artists consider what an artist does when they produce art and start to challenge that the focus on the ‘self’ might actually be a limitation. Therefore some forms of art could go beyond the idea of self.

Italo Calvino discusses the need to break outside of self and starts to think about that need to create other rules to break from own decisions: “Think what it would be to have a work conceived from outside the self, a work that would let us escape the perspective of the individual ego, not only to enter into selves like our own but to give speech to that which has no language…

(Italo Calvino ’Multiplicity’ in Six Memos for the Next Millenium 1988)

‘Flat Waste’ 1975-92 by Dieter Roth
‘Flat Waste’ 1975-92 by Dieter Roth

The idea of allowing another force to come into the work might give a new intensity to the piece. Dieter Roth ‘Flat waste’ collection of all of Roth’s waste over a 17 year period makes you consider what a human beings life is by looking at the gathering detail of remains of a human life. There is a decision made at beginning which carries an intensity as Roth chose to continue to meticulously collect his waste. Tehching Hsieh One Year Performance becomes an obsessive project which he keeps. The work discusses the human capacity to submit as he take a photo every hour of his life for a year.

‘One Year Performance’ (Time Clock Piece) 1980–1981 by Tehching Hsieh

These external rules start to question the artists role as not making a compete work but as something which starts a process. I’m interested in how I could apply this repetitive nature to my work. I think when discussing detention camps I could enforce a time period of working following a rule. As I have meticulously have been chopping up images I could set time limits on the work, or systems to be followed and produce a body of work who’s scale is emotive, commenting on child exploitation in these locations. This could become laborious work which reflects that which might be forcibly set on detainees as work during their time in a detention camp.

Materialisation and Dematerialisation

Material and Dematerialisation – A lecture by Andrew Chesher

Richard Long’s ‘A line made by walking’, was created by Long walking up and down in a straight line until the grass was trodden flat. The photograph is how this work is now presented. Long calls this work sculpture. There is a minimalistic sculptural reference but there is a huge different between this work and that of Carl Andre. Long’s work exists solely as a photograph whereas the other artists found photography was an inadequate form of presenting their work. For Minimalists, the work has to be a in a special reality, whereas photography is merely representational. The object has become mediated by reducing its material reality by making it an easily transmittable information.

‘A line made by walking’
by Richard Long
‘Early One Morning’ 1962 Sir Anthony Caro

Richard Long ‘Untitled (Ben Nevis Hitch – Hike) 1967. At specific spaces, he took a photo of bot the ground and the ski. For Lon, his practise was walking as sculpture. Whilst walking doesn’t have a form (and his photographs don’t feature people walking) there is an idea of getting away from objects by dematerialising work. He instead points to something which can’t be presented in its entirety. It becomes a fundamentally important concept that part of his work is held in Ben Nevis and the work cannot be viewed collectively.

by Richard Long

This work departs from the idea of ‘form’ as the ‘idea transcends the form’ (any form presented is only partial of the idea). Robert Morris said that previously the relationships within the work of art were what was important(e.g. between paint and the canvas), but for him the relationship was between the object and the viewer. Long extends this more to something which you can’t see but can only imagine.

Robert Morris’s work ‘Untitled’,1965 the work seems to continually push us out into the contingent events which surround the work. They’re always changing and therefore have no end – its context dependent and open to the influence of its environment. Robert Smithson moves beyond Morris’ work (with the idea that the object he was making had a form which could be recognised immediately e.g. it was a cube with 6sides). He plays with idea of ‘site and non- site’. Smithson would place mirrors in a site and then take photographs or take the material form the site and place in the gallery – ‘Non sites’. His work dealt with a displacement, he wanted to continually relate back to the space/location he took the work from rather than presenting an object.

‘Untitled’ 1965, by Robert Morris
‘Nonsite’ (Essen Soil and Mirrors) 1969 by Robert Smithson

This idea of dematerialisation is continued in Francis Alÿs piece ‘The Loop’ 1997 was made when asked to contribute to an exhibition in Santiago. Alys took the money for the commission and flew perpendicularly around the globe to arrive back to Santiago. He got from Mexico to USA by not crossing the Mexican/USA border. BUT the purpose of making this work is the ‘process’, although many would argue he has squander the money from the commission. The form of the work is a post card of the ocean with a text which describes what he did and why. This work is actually JUST A POSTCARD, but the it’s the’ experience’ which your involved in. Although this only exists as photograph, he said the point was to become a rumour. He wants his work to be told to a friend. RUMOUR = ART.

‘The Loop’ 1997 by Francis Alÿs

There is always a question of why does the work take the FORM that it does?

Dematerialisation– “When not on exhibition, the pieces are dismantled and cease to exist except as ideas. The dematerialisation of his sculpture makes it impossible for Andre to indulge himself in wasteful activities like polishing and shining…. “–David Bourdon 1966.

Carl Andre works with materiality always sourcing his work form the surrounding of where he is exhibiting his work. He also decided he would never make work if he couldn’t set it up by himself, the piece needed to be proportional to his body. However, he also followed the idea of ‘post studio’ art, focusing on creation without needing a studio himself. He makes the work in situ and because of having an idea and then making the work – he said he is interested in ‘seeing what it looks like’. Sol LeWitt said that conceptual art is when the ‘idea was a machine which makes the work’. Both these artists have very different approaches as LeWitt sees the concept as generating the outcome but Andre was also concerned with how his work is read in space.

Conceptual Art– 5-31 January 1969 (Exhibition curated by Seth Siegelaub). In one room there was a series of work which were physical e.g photography’s, paintings. In another room there was a description of the works written up in a book, these were descriptions which could be carried out. This first room was described as ‘secondary information’ where as the book was seen as ‘primary’ as it was where the work was created. The IDEA is now seen as the primary thing. Lawrence Weiner makes works which are ‘written up ideas of works’, and then carries it out. He’s very interested in the relationship between the idea and the creation and his work became about removal, removing parts of the location where he was invited to exhibit work. “Removal of the Lathing or Support Wall of plaster of Wallboard from a wall, 1968’ is where he started to remove a square of plaster. It could be argued he’s showing the materiality of the wall but he wants to emphasise that this is a removal and not a ‘form’ to be read therefore dematerialising the work.

‘Removal of the Lathing or Support Wall of plaster of Wallboard from a wall’
by Lawrence Weiner

Martin Creed’s piece ‘The lights going on and off’ 2000, The lights of the room go on and off in 5 second intervals. Is this piece about light? The room? Is it the moment that the lights are turning off and on that the work exists? Have we arrived at the work of art? But the work is the questions, because we don’t know its boundaries. This is discussing the notion of materiality, if the idea is something which can have in our head, to some extent the materiality goes beyond form. 

‘The Lights going on and off’ 2000 by Martin Creed

Gabriel Orozco became a reference point for an art form which responded to the modern world but referenced the traditions of the Avant Gard. ‘Extensions of reflection’ and ‘Breath on Piano’, both only exist as photographs. We can’t say that the creation is the sculpture, or the photograph is a representation of the sculpture, nor is the photography the primarily reality. We are asked to think about how this act is done spontaneously in the world. This response to the world is also completely ephemeral- taking the barest minimal form. Therefore, we experience an idea which is made from encounter with the world. This is similar to the content of Martin Creed – Is it happening?

‘Extentions of reflections’ by Gabriel Orozco
‘Breath on Piano’ by Gabriel Orozco







Frank Stella’s work ‘Empress of India’, 1965 is a painting where he painted chevrons on shaped canvases, the canvas is shaped to conform to the shapes it contains of visa versa. Michael Fried wrote a critical book called ‘Shape as Form’ in which he discussed that Stella made a painting which sailed as closely to objecthood as possible and then came back. He does this by acknowledging the edge of the canvas. For Fried this piece acknowledged the objecthood by echoing an optical visual experience within the canvas but also comments on its object within the room. There is no longer a need for the ‘edges of a work’.

‘Empress of India’ 1965 by Frank Stella



During my Theory Lecture, Minimalism was being used to bring up ideas around Frame, Process, Artist and Audience.

Hal foster in ‘The Crux of Minimalism” 1986 sees minimalism as something between two movements – a pivot point. America and British minimalism is very overt and a discursive movement which emerges as a reaction to:

  1. Formalism (Greenberg and Fried) discussing abstract expressionism.
  2. ‘Action Painting’ (Harold Rosenberg)

Rosenberg sees painting as a state for the artists discover, inner discovery and self-realisation. His reading of abstract expressionism plays on seeing the artist as an individual. The individual is a self-created man (an American idea).  Pollock becomes an icon of the time, seen as someone who ‘does it alone’. In 1960’s younger artists are becoming aware of seeing ‘the artist’ as a hero. This all plays into cold war context as the ‘freedom of individuals’ is something America want to promote at that time.

This idea of individualism started to reach breaking point and artist start to look LEFT politically. They are concerned with the focus of individual and start to look at a more socially context. What the model of the artist is in relation to audience? Is there a continuity between art and the world?

Abstract Expressionism vs Minimalism

‘Who’s afraid of red, yellow and blue IV?’ 1969 by Barnett Newman
‘Untitled (E’) 1965 by Robert Ryman

We start to discuss what the differences between abstract expressionism and Minimalism are. Barnett Newman and Robert Ryman share a limit of a representational reference but there is also a radical break between these two. Is it just a further simplification of is there an important discontinuity?

Greenberg says that for him, Abstract painting has to assert itself as paint and as flat instead of the painting being representational or as a widow. Donald Judd (a serialism artist) questions how far Greenberg is willing to go with his integrity of the medium by questioning what belongs to the medium and what’s outside of its limits. If the logic is that the work is the medium then surely we could just place a blank canvas in a room? BUT Greenberg and Michael Fried say this isn’t right. Fried argues the formalist painting is about a dynamic flatness but should never be the object itself,the work has to become something new. Greenberg is saying that the work is still an aesthetic space and needs to be more than a literal/material thing. However, Robert Ryman’s work instead of it being an illusionistic space it accepts its own ‘objectness’. It understands itself as an object, the work has dialogue with its surrounding. Ryman makes a point of how he hangs his work, how its attached to wall becomes a part of it. This is continued in Jo Baer ‘Grey Wraparound Triptych (Blue Green, Lavender) 1970, as he starts to think about how the side of the work becomes part of it. Its an OBJECT. Its not just a visual optical field. When I’m looking at it I’m no longer just an eye but I’m a body in physical space. We occupy the same space as the object. Its no longer just an aesthetic space. So Ryman is now an object in space where as Newmann is an optical space.

‘Wraparound Triptych (Blue Green, Lavender)’ 1970 by Jo Baer Grey

‘Picture’ vs ‘object’

Robert Morris starts to talk about how the work becomes a function of space and light. You become more reflective because your aware of your body in that space. The reflectivity is the audience looking at themselves in the space, you and the work. But the object becomes one thing in a whole series of relationships. It’s not just about the relationship between the audience and the object and therefore the borderline between the work and the world becomes blurred. If the whole situation is involved then the walls and when you enter the room could be part of the work? Similar to Morris talking about relationships moving externally. Kishio Suga lays out plastic sheeting. The lighting becomes part of the work. Its contingent on the changes happening around the work. The transience of the environment is important to the work itself. Fried starts to be bothered by what the limits of the art is as he no longer knows what to judge as work. He is having a crisis of judgment as the artist is no longer having clear mastery over the work.

‘Situated Underlying Existence’ 2014 by Kishio Suga

Work as Prop

Morris sees minimalist work as prop, it’s not self-contained by is a way to leader to other things. In his own work, it becomes about the audience interacting with the work. The work becoming a prop allows something to happen which is over and above its physical qualities therefore the object becomes a mediator which allows different things to happen which wouldn’t if it wasn’t there. Yoko Ono Cut piece- audience had scissors and could cut clothes off. She set the stage to see what would happen, there was a possibility. There is a notion of potentiality rather than actuality which has influenced participatory practises with audience engaging.

‘Cut Piece’ 1964 by Yoko Ono

Minimalism brings idea of viewer becoming part of the work. Critiques were questioning what the viewer actually is? Are they a general category? Where as Greenberg saw a eye, minimalism starts to talk about a body viewing a work. But how can sex, class etc be considered? How can we think about what the view is? Who is looking at it etc?

Santiego Sierra created the opportunity to make ‘133 persons paid to have their hair dyed blond’ when invited to participate Venice Biennale. But Venice has lots of illegal migrants therefore Sierra became interested in gap between illegal immigrants and art world. So he invited migrants to be paid to have hair died and were told to sell their stuff inside the exhibition space. This might have made spectacle of this group of people but it does question who is the ‘viewer’ of art? Is art only accessible to a particular strata of society.

Please see: Playing with situation

Form and Formalism

From a Lecture on Greenberg….

Form – content/meaning, this might be material or immaterial (online) and these all impact on the way meaning is set up. Relationship between form and content is always spoken about as separate but form and meaning have to be together.

Formalism –  study of art based solely on its form (eg how it’s made and it’s aesthetic)

Clement Greenberg’s position is ‘formalism’. To him, form IS the content and the meaning. Form is always involved because between the artist intention and the reception of the viewer. But he was controversial! A reaction against Greenberg would be John Latham ‘Study for Art and Culture’. Latham (a tutor at CSM) invited his students to a dinner party and then got everyone to eat pages of the book, the pulp he then gave back to the library which he took it from. Latham disagreed with Greenberg’s emphasis on formalism and struggled with criticism that British art was too aesthetic.

John Latham ‘Study for Art and Culture’ 1966-69

The Modernism movement in the early 20th Century attempted to reject historical styles of working and experiment with form and material to better reflect early 20th century:

  • Constructivism (Russia)
  •  de Stijl (Holland)
  • Bauhaus (Germany)
  • Cubism (France)
  • South American modernism
  • Latin American modernism

In euro schools like Bauhaus, there is an interconnection between art and more functional disciplines becomes blurred.— eg paul klee. These are different ways of thinking about formalism as these works ask what art does to contribute to society. However, Greenberg were purely concerned with fine art in terms of its visual contribution.

Avant-Garde and Kitsch  1939 is a heavily criticised  ESSAY. Greenberg started to discuss the concept of art being categorised into high art and low/ folk art (based around popular culture). The context to his essay is the rise of the Nazi party in 1937. During that time the ‘Degenerate Art’ exhibition 1939 was displaying all the art censored by the Nazis.  Works by contemporary artists such as Matisse, Paul Klee and Mondrian were labelled as ‘degenerate’. The Nazis were concerned with displaying art which reflected the values/ ideas they wanted for their own society. Adolf Wisse; ‘farming family in the third Reich’ 1939 was displayed as a work which reflected this desire. This is a conservatives on two levels; as the subject and also as a realistic painting. This is what Goldberg is thinking about in his essay.

Adolf Wissel ‘Farming family in the Third Reich’ 1939

At the same time in history- there is a constructivism movement but also a growth of socalist realism. Goldberg is also concerned about the rise of consumerism culture and becomes worried about how capitalism is impacting us. Goldberg says that ‘Kitch’ (popular culture and consumerism culture) is described as ‘vampiric’,  by taking the realities of life during a period of time, which have a genuine meaning, to a system of avertisment etc. The word ‘Vampiric’ is used to describe the process of ‘sucking the blood/life out of things’. Greenberg is worried about lifting things such as punk culture which was a form of self expression and art and using it as a fashion trend whereby all the meaning is lost.

Greenberg futures his opinions on formalism by comparing the Ilya Repin’s ‘Procession in the region’ and Picasso’s ‘Guernica’. He is concerned by the realism of Repin’s painting as he fears there is no separation between life and the art and therefore can be dangerous in showing us the truth of the world. He’s discussing how some work is pre-digested for the viewer and therefore doesnt make us thing twice that what were presented with might have a political agenda. We view the work as a reflection of how we should be within society and therefore we can become trapped in the thoughts of a political group. Repins work is compared with Picasso’s, which required more effort to take information from. Greenberg wants art to be more difficult because he wants us the think about what were looking at and to reflect. If we think that what were presented with an image which reflects reality, we start to accept it as truth. It being painting realistically makes us think its transparent.

Ilya Repin ‘Easter Procession in the Region of Kursk’ 1880
Picasso ‘Guernica’ (detail) 1937

Medium specificity: “Toward a new Laocoon’

“It is by virtue of its medium that each art is unique and strictly itself.  To restore the identity of an art, the opacity of its medium must be emphasized.”

(Greenberg, ‘Towards a new Laocoon’)

Greenberg starts to discuss that through time the medium matters more. Eg through time the medium declares itself as the point of painting. Were not trying to present that something is what its not. Something shouldn’t be illusionistic but there should be ‘Integrity of the picture plane’. The medium is no longer a vehicle  for stories or illusions but can only be used as a medium. Goldberg thinks THE FORM IS THE CONTENT. It is no longer a mediator.

Form= Content

So for him, if the work isn’t about the medium then it isn’t pure enough. We can see sense in this thinking but Goldberg starts to dictate what art should be. Looking at a painting… he will ask what belongs to painting alone? What is art for? It looses it representational role because of photography and film. Therefore Greenberg justified the need for painting to be around medium.

‘Modernist Painting”

Goldberg is arguing that painting should be about visual experience only! Eg Jackson Pollock’s ‘Lavender Mist’. Is a good example for what painting should be because you can only get what’s communicated through painting. There should be nothing to do with imaging ourselves in a space but should only be able to see it optically. Therefore he believes that painting should be completely AUTONOMOUS. It should be SELF SUFFICIENT. This idea was around 1913 as Abstraction doesn’t need any prior knowledge. It could be cross cultural and anyone could experience it in the same way because it has an international language.

Notion of Reflexivity

The Avant-Garde modernist artists reflects on the medium itself. The from is the content for Greenberg. Reflection on the means of expression is celebrated by James Joyce ‘Finnegans Wake 1939′ where the words and language itself become the art work. Likewise On Kawara plays with language’s character of delay in his piece  ‘I am still alive 1973” because as soon as he writes ‘im still alive’ we don’t know if thats still the case when we receive the letter/ the moment after it is written.

Despite Greenberg having a promotional attitude toward the Avant-Garde,  towards the end of his career he was very against Dada and Pop Art movements which conflicted with many of his theories. His work seems to contradict itself and therefore I struggle with Greenberg’s restriction to the limit/ role of art aswell as his inability to have continuity through his arguments.